Body language

Book encourages less presentation, more conversation

One Bucket at a Time shares secrets to informing, educating, influencing and persuading any audience


“The central theme of this book that a presentation should be a conversation is ingenious. Humans have evolved for hundreds of thousands of years to communicate by conversation. We are mentally structured to do so.

"For anyone seeking to set themselves and their ideas apart, this book is well worth the read. Eric Bergman’s techniques are a window to the future of this important human activity.”

One Bucket Cover vF

John Sweller, PhD,
Emeritus Professor of Education,
University of New South Wales,
Sydney, Australia

Whether a presentation is delivered in the room or via Zoom, a new book is encouraging those conveying their ideas to embrace more conversation and less presentation. In this, the science is clear. It’s the best way to have those ideas received, understood, retained and acted upon by the audience.

One Bucket at a Time is based on the assumption that the only reason for bringing people together is to listen to someone share something of value.

“You can have a presentation without slides,” author Eric Bergman writes. “But you cannot have a presentation without a presenter. At its core, therefore, the effectiveness of any presentation can be measured by what makes it from the speaker’s vocal cords to the long-term memory of those in attendance.

“Once you understand that thought, it becomes evident that feeding into how people listen is the most critical presentation skill to develop.”

Using an analogy of a tank, bucket and trough, the book provides guidance into understanding and developing that critical skill. The tank is the information the presenter plans to get across to the audience. The trough is the collective long-term memory of those in attendance. The goal of any presentation should be to get as much sustenance as possible from tank to trough.

The only way that happens, however, is if the audience engages working memory to transfer those ideas into long-term memory one small bucket at a time.

“The challenge is that the bucket of working memory is incredibly small, more like a child’s sand bucket than a milk pail,” Bergman writes. “And it’s easily overloaded. When that occurs, information spills out, never to be remembered.”

Using a combination of cognitive science and common sense, One Bucket at a Time makes the case that the best way to get meaningful information from tank to trough is through a relaxed, conversational delivery. The audience needs silence, and lots of it, in order to empty working memory into long-term memory before being ready to fill the bucket again.

While most presentations focus solely on attempting to teach others, Bergman’s approach is different. He advocates helping the audience teach themselves. The audience should have plenty of opportunity to ask questions to fill in understanding, which are best answered clearly and concisely.

For Bergman, tapping the potential of presentations boils down to engagement, which he defines along a spectrum. Engagement begins when working memory passes ideas to long-term memory, one bucket at a time. At the other end of the spectrum are presentations after which the audience can effectively convey the presenter’s ideas to others.

Most presentations are not engaging. In the vast majority of cases, a mountain of auditory and visual information is sent, but little is retained as soon as the presentation concludes.

“Most presentations today are like playing tennis with someone who has a large basket of balls and isn’t going to stop serving until the basket is empty, regardless of whether you show any interest in hitting one back,” Bergman explains. “In such situations, if you came to practice service returns, you might be interested in playing along for a while. But if you came to play a game of tennis, it won’t take long before you find something else to do. And this is how most audiences react.

“If the audience is reading, writing, texting, scanning their social media feed, sending an e-mail or reading a document, they cannot be listening. And, ultimately, if they’re not listening, what on earth is the point?”

One Bucket at a Time is available from Amazon, Kindle and Apple Books.

Is your audience leaning in to listen?

Or are they tuning out to text?


man texting tight
Interesting question, isn’t it? But in today’s world, it’s the first question that needs to be asked every time you deliver a presentation to others.

As a presentation skills resource, One Bucket at a Time is designed to provide the tools, skills and confidence you need to have your audiences leaning in to listen every time you deliver a presentation.

You’ll learn how to put the audience first. You’ll gain insight into structuring a conversation—not another boring presentation—that provides value to the audience while furthering your business objectives.

You'll learn to use visual aids effectively. Every visual you use will add to the success of your presentation, not distract (and therefore detract) from it.

You'll apply principles of face-to-face communication to all presentations—whether one-on-one or groups. Your communication skills will improve in virtually all aspects of your professional and personal life.

And you'll gain insight into answering questions clearly, concisely and effectively. This will enhance audience engagement, understanding and buy-in—and have them leaning in for more.

If you're interested in communicating effectively—in acquiring the skills to improve every presentation you'll deliver for the rest of your life—One Bucket at a Time is the perfect resource to help you.

One Bucket at a Time is available from Amazon, Kindle and Apple Books.

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The Mehrabian Myth

mehrabian cover
When it comes to the use of body language in presentations and broadcast interviews, most of us have seen a statistic that seems to support the notion that:

  • 55% of the overall message is how the person looks when delivering the message.
  • 38% of the overall message is how the person sounds when delivering the message.
  • 7% of the overall message can be attributed to the words the person uses.
If we take these numbers at face value, they seem to imply that 93 per cent of communication is non-verbal. It isn’t. If it was, we’d be able to watch a foreign movie without subtitles. By simply observing how two actors converse, we’d be able to listen to how the words sound, watch the actors' gestures and get 93 percent of what transpires.

However, we all know that this is not the case. We will recognize emotion, but if you don't understand what is said, you comprehend significantly less than 93 percent of what transpires between the actors.

The numbers 55, 38 and 7 first appear in a 1971 book entitled Silent Messages, written by Albert Mehrabian and based on his research at Stanford University. But the way these numbers are now commonly mis-stated bears little resemblance to what Professor Mehrabian originally intended.

Mehrabian was examining trust in communication. He would have someone say “no” but nod “yes,” for example. If there is a disconnect between words and gestures, which does the receiver of information rely on to determine trust in the message.

Mehrabian uses two equations in Silent Messages (on pages 44 and 45) to describe the results of one section of his research, in a chapter titled "The Double-Edged Message":
  • Total liking = 7% verbal liking + 38% vocal liking + 55% facial liking
  • Total feeling = 7% verbal feeling + 38% vocal feeling + 55% facial feeling
From his research, Professor Mehrabian's assertion is that words, voice and body language must be consistent with each other. If there is an inconsistency between what’s said and how the person looked saying it, the receiver of the message relies on more than the words spoken to get the overall message.

Mehrabian’s outcome is clear. If you attempt to be someone other than who you are in a presentation or broadcast interview (i.e. by trying to create the right image to get as much as possible out of the 55 per cent), the audience will sense this inconsistency and will be less likely to believe what you're saying. As Mehrabian writes, "when actions contradict words, people rely more heavily on actions to infer another's feelings."

This emphasizes the importance of "be yourself" as a fundamental principle of effective presentations and/or broadcast interviews. You certainly want to be on your best behaviour, but if you use gestures when you're engaged in a telephone conversation (and virtually all of us do), you should bring those gestures to your presentations and broadcast interviews. Let them happen naturally. They are an integral component of who you are as a human being, and therefore fundamental to the concept of "be yourself."

Using gestures naturally is the best possible way to ensure consistency between the words spoken, how they sound when they're spoken and how you look when they're spoken. In that scenario, total liking and total feeling will be as close to 100 percent as possible.

And your effectiveness at influencing others will be enhanced.

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